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What is rubber? History


Rubber, is one of the key ingredients of today's industry. Motor - non-motorized wheels of vehicles, various raincoats, shoes, the most important izolalar electrician, buttons, combs, pens, such as materials, bonding solutions, varnishes, the application form to express rubber industry.

Because so much of natural rubber with a rubber, and plenty of much cheaper to obtain by the Germans in 1906, synthetic (artificial) rubber was obtained. RUBBER - Rubber is actually a tree name. The latex sap of this tree from him and obtained from the court has found use in industrial materials. In recent years, as well as natural rubber, synthetic rubber or rubber producing species, many have emerged. The most important feature of rubber with high elasticity, that is, one can revert back is prolonged. The development of rubber processing industry and in almost every industry that is based on the use. More rubber Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae) plant family, also Compositae, Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae families found in plant latex (the sap in plants, milk appearance) of drying the product obtained. The name of rubber, their native language comes from the Amazon region (caa-o-cu = weeping trees).

Dried slime molds used in Brazil, a lot of layers on the rubber shoes were made with the upgrading of the clot. Among the dried latex with cloth, waterproof cloth was produced.Previously unknown. Modern rubber manufacturing industry, the rubber hardening brimstone (vulkonizasyon) began operations (1839). The development of this industry, rubber processing the raw material to be used in many places was the reason.

Goodyear in the United States in 1839-1840, England Hancock, hot sticky rubber with sulfur and non-pooled, a substance obtained in the cold they do not lose elasticity.

Rubber Properties;

  Rubber neftoil, karbondisülfür, carbontetrachloride, in turpentine, ether, the gasoil, dissolves in gasoline and similar liquid diluent.Rubber between physical products, softness, strength, elasticity, water and air impermeability properties, adhesives, and of resistance against power is the most important product.

Genuine rubber was extended several times over and over again, almost back to its original size in early returns.This feature of the rubber, synthetic rubber and rubber and all other materials containing such substances are separated.

Rubber production;

The rest of the oil obtained from the artificial chemical (synthetic) rubber is. Natural rubber, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) bark flowing milky özsudan (latex) is obtained. This tree is best grown around the equatorial regions. The major natural rubber growing countries, Brazil, Nigeria, Liberia, Zaire, South India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines is.Production of natural rubber plantations (large farms) as well as takes place in small farms. Remains from the Mayan civilization in Central and South America at least 900 years old, was found lumps of raw rubber. Christopher to Europe to bring information Kolomb'tur first. Columbus, Haiti expand the domestic "gum tree" made from a collection had been playing. century, two French botanist, Charles de la Condamine and François Fresneau, stayed in South America for a long time. Kauçukağacını ilk tanıtan 1730'da Fresneau oldu. The first was to introduce. American Indians in the rubber tree, "crying tree" they said in the sense cahucho. La Condamine, 1736'da rubber samples sent to Paris and how the local point of rubber shoes, they make war shields and bottles, as well as how these materials benefit from waterproof materials were told.Until the middle of the century rare and expensive as an ingredient in rubber remaining.Rubber from South America and especially in the beginning only from Brazil could be achieved. In 1876, Henry Wickham, 70-thousand rubber tree seeds were collected; them Kew'daki Kingdom near London Botanical Garden brought to the greenhouse and planting the seeds provided. Majority of botanical gardens in Asia, especially Sri Lanka and has been sent.Meanwhile, the seedlings up to 11 are believed to arrive in Malaysia. Director of the botanic garden in Singapore in 1889, was brought to Henry Nicholas Ridley, has developed a new method of obtaining latex, so he began to rapidly increase production of rubber. Thus obtained from the rubber plantations in Southeast Asia's importance, according to South America grew from wild rubber. 1907 plantation rubber in the world meet requirements of 5 per cent meets 1914 came when the rate 50 per cent has increased. Trees trunks on the iron blade with V-shaped slot opening and slot flowing milk (latex) containers are collected. Rubber latex is 30-40% of these. The coagulated rubber latex to obtain required. Acetic acid or formic acid is used for this process. Thus obtained in the form of pellets and retractable rubber is suitable. But it is not resistant to rupture. 135-160 to be converted into tire rubber with sulfur vulcanization degree is required. Move at a rate of 12-20% sulfur, the rubber, tire gets its name.More sulfur (30%) enters this case, the rubber hardens and ebonite name field and the electrical insulator is used as a product obtained isoprene (2-methyl butadiene) molecules kondensasyonuyla occurred is a compound. Weighing up to 70% water and molecules move around 350.000. Rubber becomes sticky 180 degrees, melts at 220 degrees. After such an early distillation of rubber. Distillery products fluently, is a liquid rubber, oil yağımsı takes its name. Rubber is the best solvent. Rubber raw (unprocessed) does not have a value more than the shape in practice. But when mixed with various chemical substances to obtain thousands of useful products. Rubber is vulcanized with sulfur. Vulkanizasyonda Sulfur (S) and sulfur compounds (S2Cl2, SO2, H2S) is used as. Se and Te are also used, but is expensive. Vulkanizasyonla a coupling occurs in the polymer. % 2-3 lük S bağları teşekkül eder. 2-3% of the luxury S bond is formed.

Synthetic Rubber Production

Synthetic rubber, most of the country near the oil purification systems are manufactured in the factory established. Most especially the USA, Japan, Germany and manufactured in France. There are over 100 different types of synthetic rubber.A flexible rubber substance is stretched several times their own may be extended or compressed format can be changed, but released again, since when it takes on the shape and size.

Synthetic rubbers;

   Butadiene (CH2 = CH-CH = CH2C Chloroprene (CH2C = CH-CCl = CH2), acrylonitrile (CH2 = CHCN), styrene (CH2 = CH-C6H5), such as unsaturated (double bond-containing) organic compounds of synthetic rubber also obtained is. Synthetic rubber natural rubber qualities with but not too much is produced filler rubber is used. Important synthetic rubber, butadiene rubber (BR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); nitral butadiene rubber (NBR), izobutileni-izopropilen rubber (IBR), izobutilen-isoprene rubber (IIR), etc. can be considered. neoprene rubber kloroprenden produced. the food industry are used in conveyor belts, vegetable oils and machine lubricants big mailing these items is done. Akrilonitrik rubber, acrylonitrile (CH2 = CHCN) bütadienle polymer is done. Vegetable oils and organic solvent resistance shows. Furniture and bedding in the foam material, the polyurethane rubber is made. vulcanized are not the product, mold and then the heat and pressure is applied. Heating in the rubber softens and molds to fill the form in the flow. At the same time, sulfur rubber by combining with a permanent received gives the vulcanized product. In addition, the dimethyl silicone rubber are derived from silicon.

Were added to rubber additives are listed as follows;

  1. Plasticisers (inactive carbon)
  2. Softeners
  3. Linguatic old retards (activated carbon)
  4. Concealer cheaper raw materials (limestone, kaolin, etc.)
  5. Increased strength and hardness Linguatic
  6. Paints
  7. Materials that accelerate or slow reaction.

Using the Course of rubber - rubber Applications;

   Use of rubber, the development of road transport has shown a large increase. During the first cars to bicycles, trucks, aircraft, tractors and earthmoving machines are used in the construction of wheels. Moreover, waterproof clothing, shoes, gloves, sanitary ware, flooring materials, such as toys and inflatable beds are used in the production of many materials. Rubber solutions are benefiting as the glue.

Rubber Recycling;

 Up 2 is back in the rubber.






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